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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Alternative Fuels Data Center, run by the U.S. Department of Energy
alternative fuel vehicle
the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Institute (Las Vegas)
absorbed glass mat, a form of advanced lead acid battery
adsorbed natural gas, a lower-pressure alternative to CNG
America’s Natural Gas Alliance, an organization of utility, E&P and other companies promoting an increased use of natural gas, including natural gas vehicles
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (of 2009), a major source of funding for clean vehicles projects, primarily but nort exclusively through the U.S. Department of Energy recovery.gov
ARB = CARB
common name for propane/LPG in Europe, beginning to be used in the U.S.
AVERE is the European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, based in Brussels
generally the raw, unrefined precursor to biomethane, available from sources including animal waste (manure), human waste (municipal sewage) and landfills.
methane derived from renewable sources, usually organic waste, generally upgraded to pipeline or vehicle quality, sometimes called biogas
ethanol derived from non-food sources, such as specialty crops or organic cellulosic (woody) waste
Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (or Indices), a measure used by utilities to gauge the impact of power outages. Hybrid electric vehicles with power take-off can help improve CAIDI scores
or CHAdeMO, association established in late summer 2009 by Mitsubishi, Nissan, Subaru and Tepco, effectively the new name for the international protocol for fast electric vehicle charging equipment — initially known as the JARI or Tepco protocol — Chademo (Japanese language) website
Clean Fuels Consulting, Brussels
coalbed methane, once considered a nuisance and a hazard to coal miners, increasingly being recognized as a potentially significant source of natural gas fuel
compressed natural gas
U.S. Department of Energy (EERE is DoE’s office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy)
dimethyl ether, a synthetic (CH3OCH3) gaseous fuel that works well as a replacement for diesel
usually connotes a vehicle with a diesel-cycle (compression ignition, no spark) engine set up to run largely on natural gas (or propane-LPG), with diesel for starting and acceleration and as a “pilot” fuel to sustain combustion
Electric Drive Transportation Association, the Washington trade group for electric vehicles
Electric Power Research Institute, the R&D arm of the electric utilities industry.
ethyl alcohol, a popular biofuel, often derived from corn or sugar cane, and increasingly from more desirable (because non-food) cellulosic sources (yes, it’s a popular beverage ingredient too)
EVAAP is the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific, hosted by the China Electrotechnical Society in Beijing
exploration and production, generally used to describe companies that extract and ship natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and Canada. E&P firms have become vocal advocates of natural gas vehicles.
the new Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, resulting from the October 28, 2010 merger of the National Hydrogen Association and the U.S. Fuel Cell Council
fuel cell vehicle
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a device for making electricity, usually from hydrogen, with pure water the only emission — see PEM
gasoline gallon equivalents, commonest means of measuring CNG for sale in the U.S. One GGE equals approximately 127 cubic feet of methane.
Gladstein, Neandross & Associates (Santa Monica, Calif.)
Gas Technology Institute (Illinois)
gas-to-liquid, technology for making petroleum-equivalent fuels (diesel and aviation) from natural gas, often associated with a process known as Fischer-Tropsch
hydraulic hybrid vehicle
a vehicle equipped, generally electrically, for regenerative braking, the gathering of energy from stopping to be applied on acceleration, reducing fuel use (and often allowing for a smaller engine entirely)
a hybrid vehicle that uses compressed gas, in a device known as an accumulator, in lieu of a battery to gather power/store energy for regenerative braking
International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles, formal and legal name of NGV Global, the world trade group (and association of associations) for NGVs
Japan Automobile Research Institute, which among its other activities helps develop international standards for key electric drive vehicle components
kinetic energy recovery system, generally equivalent to regenerative braking
kilowatt hour, common way of measuring the energy capacity of a battery
an increasingly popular, though still expensive high performance category of battery for electric drive vehicles
liquefied natural gas
liquefied petroleum gas, i.e. propane
liquid propane injection, an engine system by Roush Performance for dedicated propane/LPG operation
CH4, the simplest of the alkanes, and the principal constituent of natural gas
methane gas locked in ice, with vast quantities distributed widely around the world in sea-floor sediments and permafrost. ‘Some believe there is enough methane in the from of hydrates,’ states an excellent Oak Ridge National Laboratory summary, ‘to supply energy for hundreds, maybe thousands, of years.’
National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium at West Virginia University
neighborhood electric vehicle, largely synonymous with LSV, for low speed vehicle.
natural gas vehicle
NGV (primarily in Asia)
natural gas for vehicles, i.e. CNG or LNG
NGVAmerica is the Washington trade association formerly (and still formally) known as the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition
NGVA Europe is a new trade association for natural gas vehicles, currently housed with member company Iveco in Madrid
the new name of the world natural gas vehicles trade group,still formally the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles
NGV Global News
the online news service of NGV Global
nickel metal hydride, a popular battery type, especially for hybrid electric vehicles, holds most of the market today
the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a Golden, Colo.-based unit of the U.S. Department of Energy
the Propane Education & Research Council, a Washington trade association
plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, generally equipped with a capacious battery allowing for significant or even extended engine-off operation
known also as LPG, for liquefied petroleum gas, a popular and economical alternative fuel, especially in Texas and Oklahoma
proton exchange membrane, term used to describe the type of hydrogen-to-electricity fuel cell most often used in zero-emission fuel cell vehicles, or FCVs
pressure swing adsorption, a technology for purifying such gases as biomethane or hydrogen
power take-off, a feature allowing an electric drive vehicle, usually a hybrid, to serve as a mobile generator
short for regenerative braking, whereby the force needed to stop a moving vehicle is captured, usually as electricity, and then used to aid in acceleration of the vehicle, which is then known as a hybrid vehicle
Renewable Fuels Association
RFA, the Renewable Fuels Association, is the Washington, D.C.-based national trade association for the U.S. ethanol industry
Radio frequency identification, a technology of increasing importance for tagging equipment for purposes including inventory control and safety — RFID is an emerging aid in the regular inspection of CNG cylinders, for example
standard cubic feet per minute, a volumetric measurement of the flow rate of a gas, like methane, often used to express capacity of a compressor or fueling installation
selective catalytic reduction, effective diesel aftertreatment that requires a catalyst such as urea or ammonia, creating an infrastructure/fueling issue
short for Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (U.S. Army)
short for Tokyo Electric Power Company, a leader in electric vehicle deployment
short for vehicle-to-grid, the concept of using electric vehicles as energy storage devices for the electric grid
WEVA, the World Electric Vehicle Association, is the umbrella organization, formed in 1990, of the European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP)
zero emission vehicle
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Other Glossary Resources
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